Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Composition and Seperations Essay

When a kernel of popcorn is heated, pressure builds and, depending on the percent of water in the kernel, the kernel pops open and popcorn is produced. The percentage of water in each kernel differs between brands of popcorn. If the steam produced fails to pop the kernel, the kernel becomes hard and burns. The purpose of Part 1, â€Å"Popcorn Composition†, of the â€Å"Composition and Separations Lab was to determine whether premium popcorn brands display desirable qualities when measured and compared with cheaper brands of popcorn. The experimental relevance of Part 1 of the experiment was to demonstrate the effects of water in a popcorn kernel when heated and converted to heat. Differences in water percentage determine whether or not the kernel will burst and create popcorn. In Part 2, â€Å"Separating a Solid Mixture†, the purpose was to work with supplies in the lab to separate a solid mixture of popcorn, sand, salt and iron filings into the four separate components to eventually learn the percent composition of the solid mixture. By developing a plan to separate the mixture, the group should have ended up with four separate items with weights that added up to the original weight of the mixture. The experimental relevance of Part 2 of the experiment was to learn how to separate each component in a four part solid mixture from each other. Procedure: In part 1 of this week’s lab three popcorn kernels of a one brand were given to each group. A Bunsen burner was set up by each group and the three kernels were each weighed separately on an electric balance. The Bunsen burner was then lit following the instructions given. (ch185) A 100mL beaker was obtained and filled with a half inch of clean sand. The beaker was placed on a ring stand and one kernel of popcorn was submerged into the sand. The beaker was then covered with a watch glass and heated over the Bunsen burner until the kernel popped. After popping, the kernel was removed and weighed and the moisture content was measured. This procedure occurred for all three kernels. After the moisture content of all three kernels were measured, an average was deduced for the three and written on the board. Each of the other four groups also wrote their averages for their individual brand on the board to give the class a better understanding of the differences in moisture content for each of the five brands. In part 2 of this week’s lab, a 50mL beaker was filled with a solid mixture consisting of popcorn, sand, salt and iron filings. The group then got the mass of the entire mixture and began sketching a plan to separate the mixture properly into its original four contents. First the group separated the popcorn from the mixture by using a drainer. The popcorn was then weighed. Second, the iron filings were separated using a magnet after pouring the remaining mixture onto a piece of paper. After the magnet collected all iron, the iron was scraped into a beaker and the weight was recorded. The third and final separation used a beaker and a filter paper. The filter paper was weighed and put into a filter that spilt into the beaker. The remaining salt/sand mixture was then poured into the filter paper using water to dissolve the salt. After the solution was put into the filter paper and the salt had dissolved, the filter paper and sand was dried and then weighed. After subtracting the filter paper weight from the weight of the filter paper and sand together, the weight of the sand was known. Once you had the weight of the sand, iron and popcorn, the weight of the salt was found by subtracting the three combined weights from the original weight of the mixture. To find the percent composition of each component, the weight of each was divided by 100 and, in the end, each components percent added up to 100% of the initial mixture. Results/ Data/ Calculations: Part 1: Each group determined the moisture percentage of their brand of popcorn. Table 1 shows the moisture content of each brand. Table 1: Moisture Percentage of Popcorn Brands Group Number| Popcorn Brand Used| Percent Moisture| 1| Act III| 6.24 %| 2| Food Club| 8.35 %| 3| Jolly Time| 12.2 %| 4| Orville Redenbacher| 7.47 %| 5| Pop Perfect| 6.22 %| Jolly Time popcorn was measured for weight and the moisture content was then measured. Table 2 shows the initial weights, final weights, moisture contents and percent moistures of each of the three trials performed. Table 2: Moisture Percentage by Weight of Jolly Time Popcorn Kernels Kernel| Initial Weight (g)| Final Weight (g)| Moisture Content| % Moisture| 1| 0.105 g| 0.086 g| 0.019 g| 17.8 %| 2| 0.138 g| 0.140 g| -0.003 g| -1.89 %| 3| 0.113 g| 0.106 g| 0.007 g| 6.55 %| AVERAGE| 0.109 g| 0.096 g| 0.013 g| 12.2 %| Sample Calculations: Find weight= (cupcake holder + kernel – cupcake holder) = (.263 g – .177 g) = 0.086 g Moisture Content= Initial weight – final weight = 0.105 g – 0.086 g = 0.019 g % Moisture= Moisture content x 100 Initial weight of kernel = 0.019 g = 17.8% 0.105 g Average % moisture = 17.8 + 6.55 = 12.2% 2 Part 2: The weight and eventually percentage composition was measure in a mixture of corn, iron, sand and salt and then with each component individually. Table 3 shows the weight and % compositions. Table 3: Percent composition of Mixture Material| Weight (g)| % Composition| Full Mix| 42.2 g| 100 %| Corn| 3.26 g| 7.79 %| Iron| 19.0 g| 45.0 %| Sand| 15.7 g| 32.5 %| Salt| 6.25 g| 14.8 %| Sample Calculations: Percent Composition:Initial Weight x100 Total Mixture Weight Beaker with nothing: 59. 95 g Beaker with mix: 102.1 g W/ Mix:102.1 g W/O Mix: – 59.95g 42.98 g Discussion: The experiment in part 1 was done to show that even slight differences in moisture content in popcorn make a big difference when it comes to the popcorn’s â€Å"popping† abilities. Before the experiment, the moisture content and its effect on popcorn were unknown. After the experiment each group left with the knowledge of moisture content in both preferred brands and cheap brands of popcorn. This experiment gave insight into the importance of exactness for popcorn companies pertaining to the moisture content in each kernel. The experiment in part 2 was performed to show that most solid mixtures can be separated if using the right tools. Each group had to propose a solution to separating the mixture and then weighing each of the four components afterwards to conclude if they added up to the initial weight of the solid mixture. This experiment allowed students to use their brains to separate any solid mixture that they come in contact with, which will be helpful for the future in this lab and others. Throughout the two parts of this experiment several specific errors were found and dealt with. In part 1 of this experiment several popcorn kernels were burnt and did not pop. These kernels may have affected our experiment by giving us false data, as we did not include these kernels in any final data. With burnt popcorn kernels, we were shown that the moisture content in the popcorn brand given may have resulted in one of the â€Å"cheap† brands given. In part 2 of our experiment, the initial weight was supposed to be taken before separating any part of the mixture. Unfortunately, the initial weight was skipped before the popcorn was separated. The popcorn then had to be put back into the mixture and the mixture was then weighed for the initial weight. This may have affected the final data, although it was a small error. In part 2 another error occurred when the group began to separate the salt and sand in an incorrect manner. This, however, did not affect final data, as the salt would have been eliminated anyway. Conclusions: The goals in this experiment for part 1 were to determine the moisture content in a brand of popcorn, compare the given brand with others in the lab and then find out if moisture content affects the ‘popping’ or corn and which brand or brands has a better likelihood of popping (i.e. preferred vs. cheap brands). In part 2 of the experiment the goals were to separate a solid mixture and then find the percent composition of each of the four materials within the mixture. The average moisture percentage for Jolly Time popcorn was 12.2 %. To get to this point, the group popped three separate kernels and found the moisture percentage for each and then averaged them. The percent composition for part 2 of the solid mixture was 7.79 % for corn, 45.0 % for iron, 32.5 % for sand and 14.8% for salt. These measurements added up to the 100% solid mixture and the weights added up correctly. References: Ch185. How to Light and Adjust a Bunsen Burner. (accessed Feb 12, 2013). Composition and Separations. (accessed Feb 12, 2013) Guidelines for Laboratory Reports (accessed Feb 12, 2013)

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