Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Estrogen Signaling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Estrogen Signaling - Essay Example Estrogen is one of the important sex hormones. It has definite physiological roles, the most important of which are sexual and reproductive functions. Other biological roles include involvement in various functions attributing to the cardiovascular, immune, central nervous system and musculoskeletal systems (Gustafsson, 2003; cited in Heldring, 2007: 906). The body produces many estrogen types, the most potent of which is 12- beta estradiol or E2. E2, along with its 2 metabolites estriol and estrone exerts various biophysiological effects in the body (Heldring, 2007). These effects are mediated through binding of the molecules of estrogen to specific estrogen receptors. Currently, 2 specific estrogen receptors have been identified and they are ER-alpha and ER-beta. These receptors belong to class-1 nuclear receptors (Petterson and Gustafsson, 2001; cited in Heldring, 2007: 907). Binding of the ligands to these receptors induces certain conformation changes in the receptor which in tu rn leads to a series of changes in the receptors and ultimately ends in the preinitiation complex. The changes which occur in the receptors are migration of ER from cytosol to nucleus, dimerisation of the receptor molecules, binding and interactions between dimerised receptor protein and specific sequences of DNA, recruitment of various coregulator proteins concerned with the biological action and also recruitment of various transcription factors (Paech, Webb, Kuiper, et al,1997; cited in Heldring, 2007: 908).